We found that YouTube videos uploaded by advertisers featuring at least as many female characters as male yielded 30% more views than other videos, telling us that when advertisers make their creative more inclusive, people watch. This decline in attention, however, is not reflected in marketing practice or in the general media attention to women's issues. This simplistic view of sex-role portrayal has been a useful start, but is limiting. The author's ideological perspective or world view includes the author's attitudes toward men and women. How do sex-role issues pertain to children, teenagers, and ethnic minorities? Inspired by the extensive work of Geena Davis Institute on gender representation in media, the study seeks to present a localised analysis of advertisements for gendered portrayals. It is a NGO specialized in researches on gender representation in media. By providing a deeper understanding of gender construction, I hope to initiate a fruitful discussion on advertising images of both men and women in a critical/constructivist manner. Gender Representation In Advertising. FOR A CRITIQUE OF THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER IN ADVERTISING Alladi-Venkatesh, University of California, Irvine Background During the period dating from the mid-70's to early 80's, consumer researchers began to respond to the changing demographic forces by initiating some early studies on the role portrayals of women in advertising. Globally, male characters are an average of four years older than female characters in ads. Only 4% of news stories are deemed to challenge gender stereotypes. Playing off gender stereotypes to sell stuff is now explicitly against the law for advertisers in the UK. Uspensky states that the viewer uses the structural elements of an artistic composition (the ad) to interpret the ideological perspective of the author (the advertiser). In fact, they’re as likely to believe in equal career opportunities as they are in non-gendered advertising. While there is some common agreement among different schools regarding the goals of the feminist movement, and some schools are closer to others in their overall configuration, there are differences in approaches and philosophical assumptions on gender construction and representation. That website, of course, is just a collection of examples. Venkatesh, Alladi (1985) The Significance of the Women's Movement to Marketing, NY: Praeger Publishers. Throughout her career, the author has analyzed the women's market, sex-role stereotypes, and how to communicate with women consumers through the media. Women and girls were promised success if they were slim, wore makeup, and waited on their husbands hand and foot. Looking at the four … I’m excited to share our latest report, which uses Google technology to measure representation in multimedia content. We find it significant that there is a lack of attention to this topic among marketing scholars given the simultaneous explosion of media attention. Try it now Instructor: Dana Dance-Schissel. AUTHORIAL PERSPECTIVE IN ADVERTISING: A CASE STUDY OF THE PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN Nancy Artz, University of Southern Maine This paper introduces a new approach to the study of gender representation. By quantifying patterns of gender bias in ads and sharing our findings with the industry at large, we are motivating advertisers to evaluate the inclusiveness of their work, identify unconscious bias, and engage in conversations around representation with their teams. Alternative frameworks to the study of gender in advertising can be developed by systematically examining the theoretical ideas enunciated in different disciplines. Men and boys were promised success if they drank expensive liquor, … Available from J. Kilbourne, P.O. In terms of grounding the research in practice we propose the following. A related criticism involves the discipline's preoccupation with the representation of women and subsequent lack of focus on the representation of men. Ferguson, Jill Hicks, Peggy J. Kreshel, Spencer F. Tinkham (1990), "In The Pages of Ms.: Sex Role Portrayals of Women in Advertising," Journal of Advertising, Vol 19(1), 40-51. The study showed that women are equally "effective," and in some cases, more "effective" and "less irritating" than men both as spokespersons and announcers in commercials. The research found there are twice as many male characters in ads as female characters and 25% of ads feature men only, in comparison to just 5% featuring women only. That was back in 2004. Lesson; Course; Start today. Often a lot of the connotations of these adverts are decades behind today’s society. Gilly, Mary (1988), "Sex Roles in Advertising," Journal of Marketing, Vol 52, April, 75-85. The goal is to show that gender can be viewed in ways other than as simple sex-role stereotypes or as a simple classification of consumers and products as masculine or feminine. Single Issue Research One criticism of the past approaches to the study of gender issues in marketing and advertising is that there has been a preoccupation with a single theme, sexual-stereotyping. How do sex-role issues pertain to children, teenagers, and ethnic minorities? Just imagine. Lundstrom, William J., and Donald Siglimplaglia (1977), "Sex Role Portrayals in Advertising," Journal of Marketing, Vol 14, July, 72-79. A Lack of Critical Approach and A Lost Opportunity. In other words, it was exploitation in a new for n, or as Peggy Lee's sardonic ballad of disappointment asked the question, "Is that all there is?". Research should address both intra-gender and inter-gender dynamics. Gender representation in advertising. We can go beyond simple categorizations of portrayed sex-roles by using the approach of the structural semiotician, Boris Uspensky (1973). There you’ll find tons of examples from print media in which men and women are portrayed in stereotype-reinforcing ways. 2/18/2020. Barthel, Diane (1988), Putting on Appearances: Gender and Advertising, Temple University Press. Gender can be “communicated at a glance,” making it strategic and easy for advertisers to use gender in their work. We shall now turn our attention to the papers in this special topic session. The current knowledge of each topic reveals several gaps. The result of this narrow focus on content analyses of role portrayals has trivialized the fundamental issue of gender representation by ignoring other richer dimensions. According to a study from J. Walter Thompson’s Female Tribes initiative, 85% of women think the advertising world needs to catch up to the real world when it comes to gender roles, and 66% switch off media when it stereotypes women negatively. Goffman, Erving (1976), Gender Advertisements, NY: Harper/Colophon Books (Harper and Row Publishers). Maurice Schweitzer, University of Pennsylvania, USA This study examined the portrayal of women and men in Indian magazine ads. The objective of this session is to discuss how practitioners and academics have approached the study of gender representation in advertising and to consider alternative ways to advance future research in this area. Based on the results of content analyses and the predominant use of men as commercial announcers, it was hypothesized that male voices would be more effective than female voices in advertisements for both gender-specific and nongender specific products. Some critics charge that the industry's response is self-serving and demonstrates that the industry has misunderstood the true nature of the women's movement. Gender" needs to be understood as a culturally constructed category which goes beyond but encompasses the biological category of sex, the social-psychological category of sex role, the psychological category of masculine/feminine identity, and the psycho-behavioral category of sexuality. Alladi Venkatesh, University of California, Irvine, NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 18 | 1991, Mengmeng Liu, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Lysonski, Steven (1985), "Role Portrayals in British Magazine Advertisements," European Journal of Marketing, Vol 19(7), 37-55. Sexism … Similar to screen time, gender gaps persist in speaking time. This paper analyzes the representation of children’s gender in toy advertising on television during three different periods. Disciplines that can provide valuable foundations for future gender studies in marketing include the fields of literary theory, intellectual history, philosophy, phenomenology, linguistics, and cultural studies. Gender representation in school textbooks, referred to as children literature in the western world, has been researched and discussed extensively in a … After an initial burst of research activity in the seventies and early eighties, there has been a general deceleration of published research in this area. In the author's experience the like/dislike reaction of consumers to advertising is a good way to capture the emotional and attitudinal responses of consumers to gender imagery. ‘What the Future’ => trend towards individual targeting. Ads calling for women to obtain and/or maintain physical beauty—encouraged by ads selling “In the case of women’s representation, we need to understand identity beyond gender in isolation,” Santos says. Our analysis shows that gender bias in advertising is compounded by age bias. In other words, it was exploitation in a new for n, or as Peggy Lee's sardonic ballad of disappointment asked the question, "Is that all there is?" It’s not exactly news to point out that advertising across all mediums and markets still struggles with the realistic portrayal of women and diverse communities. The reason why this is termed a questionable practice is that if indeed one of the goals of the women's movement was (and still is) both freedom from media exploitation and true emancipation, the media, instead of participating in this process, raised the exploitation to another notch or moved it to a different arena. We feel that the endless repetition of content-analyses on this narrow theme has finally produced a state of analytical exhaustion. The focus is less on the complexities of gender as a construct and more on how gender as an operational variable influences consumer response to advertising. Bartos, Rena (1989), Marketing to Women Around the World, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Uspensky, Boris (1973), A Poetics of Composition: The Structure of the Artistic Text and Typology of a Compositional Form, translated by Valentina Zavarin and Susan Wittig, Berkeley: University of California Press. An attempt is made to describe gender portrayal in rich, contextual terms rather than narrowly focus on sex-role stereotypes using simplistic terms (e.g., traditional versus non-traditional occupations). Gender portrayals in advertising have been examined extensively in the last five decades and still remain an important topic. Present Study The purpose of this proposed paper is to describe feminist theory and its different interpretations in critical-historical terms, and use them as the basis for analyzing gender representation in media practices. This was followed by Venkatesh's (1985) work based on his dissertation. This paper introduces this structural approach and shows how this approach provides a richer characterization of gender portrayal. We should continue to study the persuasive implication of gender dimensions in advertising (We refer to the Bartos and McManamon and Whipple papers in this session) and begin to study advertising practice, itself, as it relates to gender. What is depicted in these adverts is what people aspire to be, and often it is not realistic. Much has been said and written in the last ten or fifteen years, and we are in a better position to understand the true nuances of women's movement and feminist ethos. For example, the intersection of gender and other demographic characteristics is relatively unexplored in the marketing literature. Also, over the five years examined, the average age of female characters stayed relatively consistent while male characters got older. Female and male characters have roughly equal speaking time in retail (54%), consumer packaged goods (52%), and health care (49%) ads on YouTube. Stereotyping related to the gender roles can still be observed in this contemporary … They are the focus of only 10% of news stories and represent 20% of experts or spokespeople interviewed. For example, why are consumers with traditional sex-role orientations sometimes the most enthusiastic supporters of advertisements depicting non-traditional occupations? We do not recommend that the sex-role framework be completely abandoned. Studies on gender and advertising are of a recent origin (dating back to the early seventies) and cut across a variety of disciplines including mass communications (Busby 1975), sociology (Goffman 1976), critical theory/social criticism (Williamson 1978), feminist theory (Barthel 1988), marketing/consumer research (Courtney and Lockeretz 1971, Courtney and Whipple 1983, Belkaoui and Belkaoui 1976, Lundstrom and Siglimplaglia 1977, Venkatesan and Losco 1975, Wagner and Banos 1973) and international marketing (Gilly 1988, Lysonski 1985). Many of the arguments in this paper are derived from social criticism, literary theory, critical theory and philosophy, and post-modernism. Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. With respect to "irritation" level of the commercials, male respondents found male spokespersons to be less "irritating." 5.3 Depictions of Gender in Mad Men 16:11. 2 ‒© Ipsos. Based on the results of a factor analysis, the ten items were used to form two variables labeled "effectiveness" and "irritation." Brands that respect that diversity will earn the trust of their audiences. Professor William M. O'Barr. Advertising and Gender Roles Gender Roles in Advertising Introduction The world in which we live to today claims to be modern and advanced. Nancy Artz, University of Southern Maine “Gender Bias in Advertising” emerges from earlier work by the Geena Davis Institute to create a tool to analyze gender representation in entertainment media. We also conducted a deeper dive into the top 100 viewed global ads across 11 advertising sectors and discovered that female characters are significantly more likely to wear revealing clothing than male characters, and are shown more often in the kitchen, shopping, and cleaning. The paper argues for a sophisticated construction of gender as the basis for analyzing gender representation in media practices. Hello and welcome back to Advertising in Society. If you’re interested in seeing how gender roles are often portrayed in advertising, check out genderads.com. The result is the largest global study of advertising content to date, which I hope will push forward our goal of helping marketers use data and tools to become more inclusive. Possible to tailor each execution to be more relevant to the targeted audience. More research effort in this area of investigation is needed. Read More. Disciplines that can provide valuable foundations for future gender studies in marketing include the fields of literary theory, intellectual history, philosophy, phenomenology, linguistics, and cultural studies. Advertising for example is perceived 95% subconsciously without us or our brains realizing. While there is some common agreement among different schools regarding the goals of the feminist movement, and some schools are closer to others in their overall configuration, there are differences in approaches and philosophical assumptions on gender construction and representation. Gender" needs to be understood as a culturally constructed category which goes beyond but encompasses the biological category of sex, the social-psychological category of sex role, the psychological category of masculine/feminine identity, and the psycho-behavioral category of sexuality. A final criticism is that the research has tended to describe sex-role portrayal but has not fully examined the persuasive implications of gender representation. (I use the term praxis in the Aristotelean sense of human conduct which has both practical and ethical implications, rather than in a Marxian sense of a synthesis between theory and practice.) It is to this topic that we shall return in this paper. In a digital age, they have relished the opportunity to promote their products and services on social media apps and streaming sites. Some scholars argue that advertisers are obsessed with gender … Paper 1 by Rena Bartos: This paper presents the perspective of a practitioner who has been a pioneer in the analysis of gender in advertising. A Lack of Theory Because the marketing literature was produced in response to a contemporary social movement, there was not sufficient time or attention paid to theoretical issues. Advertising/Television. Attention will be paid to different schools of feminism, which is not a monolithic concept. Wagner, Lowis and Janis B. Banos (1973), "A Woman's Place: Follow-up Analysis of the Roles Portrayed by Women in Magazine Advertisements," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 10, May, 213-214. In all these cases, marketing studies were generated within the specific context of a movement without any conceptual or theoretical foundations to guide a sustained discourse. By juxtaposing different approaches to the study of the representation of gender in advertising we hope to have made a meaningful start. The most relevant to me = reflecting my world view? Due to this, media has a major part in affecting and changing our lives as we are constantly … A STUDY OF ADVERTISING: THE ROLE OF GENDER REPRESENTATIONS ON CRAFT BEER LABELS Amanda E. Kappele Dr. Cristina Mislán, Thesis Supervisor ABSTRACT This study critically examines the gender representations presented on craft beer labels available at the International Tap House in Columbia, Missouri. Because of space limitations, the paper will not attempt an exhaustive account of the various developments in feminist theory, but will highlight important trends. The study of gender representation in advertising must be grounded in theories of representation applied to other cultural settings like literature, art, film, etc. Gender advertisement refers to the images in advertising that depict stereotypical gender roles and displays. For non-gender specific products, the target audiences found male and female voices equally "effective" as announcers and the female voice more "effective" than the male as a spokesperson. The academic work in marketing has typically and rather uncritically sided with the practitioner perspective subscribing to the view that the "women's movement" offers one more opportunity to effectively create a marketing niche for various products and services. I should also note that we recognize gender is not solely limited to binary definitions; this report only reflects binary gender expression based on a machine learning model that uses a data set of individuals who consented to self-identify their genders. We would have to respond 'no' to both. This social and intellectual movement, which began in the 1960's, is still evolving and giving rise to new vocabulary and discourse. ‘What the Future’ => trend towards individual targeting. Reasoning By: Jess and Kim Superiority and Domination In advertising, men are usually portrayed as more dominant over women, who are shown to be submissive. In our opinion, the questions have become more complex, the issues are much more nuanced, and there is scope for both exciting and sustained scholarship. That is, advertising practices must be systematically deconstructed by a comprehensive analysis of the commercials, the people, and the media The above are but a few suggestions to expand the scope and enhance the quality of research on gender in advertising. Only a quarter of century ago both gender and sex were treated almost synonymously to signify the biological differences between men and women. Kilbourne, Jeanne (1987), Still Killing Us Softly, Film. In terms of theory, gender must be evaluated not only in terms of sex-roles (a loosely constructed social-psychological concept that describes sexual division of labor), but in terms of psycho-social and psycho-analytical terms. IAA India Chapter, UNICEF partner to promote equal gender representation in advertising In a statement, UNICEF said this is based on the understanding that marketing plays a powerful role in shaping gender roles and perceptions, and advertising is an important tool that can influence women's and girls' empowerment. A more generalized version of this theme (the changing roles of women) came under a broader inquiry within the field of marketing (not just advertising), as reflected in the works of Bartos, Debevec, Gentry, Iyer, Roberts, Venkatesh, McCall, Douglas and a few others. Limited Perspectives of Advertising Practice. I shall rely on representative contributions for elaborating various ideas. We wanted to know who was featured most often in the most-watched videos. The profession as a whole has come to the realization that these changes are not limited to a particular situation or context, but have had a lasting impact on consumers in their capacity as individuals and as members of households, work groups, and other institutional settings. As a final remark, this session makes a contribution by beginning to sensitize practitioners and academics to the full-range of gender construction. One criticism of the past approaches to the study of gender issues in marketing and advertising is that there has been a preoccupation with a single theme, sexual-stereotyping. This simplistic view of sex-role portrayal has been a useful start, but is limiting. Then we accounted for over 550 billion views through May 31, 2019, to understand what was watched in 51 markets. We now examine these and other related issues by way of a critique. This is most common In the marketing literature there has been a tendency to confuse these categories and a failure to appreciate their theoretical underpinnings. The paper outlines the author's approach to the study of gender and draws from the work described in The Moving Target (1982) and Marketing to Women Around the World (1989). Some of the many marketing scholars who have worked in this area include Roberts, Wortzel, Gentry, Iyer, Debevec, Strober, Douglas, McCall. As Epstein (forthcoming) has noted, "The fact that the movement's appeal is based more on the strength of its own vision than any direct link to the daily concerns of existing communities gives it a certain fragility. This, according to the critics, resulted in the problem of quickly turning an underdeveloped and under-investigated concept into a questionable "praxis." Female respondents, on the other hand, found a spokesperson less "irritating" if he or she was the opposite sex of the user of the gender-specific product. People are multi-dimensional and it is important to portray real and compelling personalities … (There are some interesting exceptions - see for example, Alreck, Settle and Belch 1982, Gentry, Doering, and O'Brien 1978). The author recommends that advertisers study consumer reaction to sex-role portrayal as part of their standard copy testing procedure. May 18, 2014 Uncategorized etesta. In 2017, discussions around gender and media have reached a fever pitch. The goal is to show that gender can be viewed in ways other than as simple sex-role stereotypes or as a simple classification of consumers and products as masculine or feminine. Gender stereotypes in particular are glaringly obvious when looking back at decades-old advertisements. That is, advertising practices must be systematically deconstructed by a comprehensive analysis of the commercials, the people, and the media. The representation of gender is a powerful code in media texts. For the purpose of this paper advertising is viewed here primarily as a representational system, a discursive practice, and a cultural discourse -- and only secondarily as an economic institution. The New Advertiser’s … This decline in attention, however, is not reflected in marketing practice or in the general media attention to women's issues. Respondents evaluated one commercial for each product using a series of ten items tapping cognitive, cognitive, and affective dimensions. Unformatted text preview: REPRESENTATIONS OF GENDER IN ADVERTISING: AN EXAMINATION OF SUPPORT FOR JEAN KILBOURNE’S HYPOTHESES IN ADVERTISEMENTS OF MAGAZINES TARGETING MAINSTREAM VERSUS LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, AND TRANSGENDER AUDIENCES SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN … The Geena Davis Institute partnered with the Signal Analysis and Interpretation Laboratory (SAIL) at USC and with funding from Google.org to create the Geena Davis Inclusion Quotient (GD-IQ), which Heldman describes as “a computer engineering tool … Source: GDIGM/Google, Global, Study of gender representation in over 2.7 million videos across 11 verticals, uploaded between Jan. 2015–May 2019. The new rule follows a review of gender stereotyping in adverts by the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) - the organisation that administers the UK Advertising … The disparity between how men and women are represented in television commercials is brilliantly satirised in this sketch by comedias Mitchell and Webb. To the extent that viewers respond to the ideological perspective of the author and not just the literal image of a focal character, it is important that we look at the totality of the advertisement and not just at the occupation of focal character when studying the portrayal of gender in advertisements. Here are just a few examples of how men and women are often stereotyped in television advertisements. Paper 3 by Nancy Artz: This paper examines the portrayal of women in advertising. But today, it is an all-encompassing term. The term "gender" itself, which has undergone much intellectual scrutiny in the recent years, does not even appear in the now famous 1964 issue of Daedalus examining "The Women of America". Gender Representation in Media Media (advertising, television and other forms in which consumers obtain content) is a forum that has such an immense power, a power that the common lay man just doesn’t realize. Based on the results of a factor analysis, the ten items were used to form two variables labeled "effectiveness" and "irritation." In terms of grounding the research in practice we propose the following. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. A major part of this work was motivated by the changing consciousness embedded in the social/political activism of the "women's movement." We, as consumer researchers, can both look back and think forward in our analysis of the underlying issues, and this is really what this paper will attempt to accomplish. Most of the gender-related content in these different platforms of media are examples of the roles of females and males that are geared mostly towards children. We can go beyond simple categorizations of portrayed sex-roles by using the approach of the structural semiotician, Boris Uspensky (1973). Marketing scholars and practitioners might want to examine Goffman (1976) for a brilliant analysis of roles and ritual practices. Respondents evaluated one commercial for each product using a series of ten items tapping cognitive, cognitive, and affective dimensions. It must be understood in its historically rooted and culturally constructed context and not in the simplistic terms that consumer researchers have incorporated it into their work. We, as consumer researchers, can both look back and think forward in our analysis of the underlying issues, and this is really what this paper will attempt to accomplish. The idea of mass communication indicates a transfer of information to a … The partnership is aimed at supporting research on gender representation in advertisements in India. In 2017, The Advertising Standards Authority launched new guidelines on avoiding gender stereotyping in advertising and in 2019 banned two ads from airing in the UK because they reinforced gender stereotypes. Much has been said and written in the last ten or fifteen years, and we are in a better position to understand the true nuances of women's movement and feminist ethos. Bartos, Rena (1989), Marketing to Women Around the World, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Women. In the simplest case, sex-role portrayal has been categorized as traditional or modem. Announcer gender and spokesperson gender were manipulated in each commercial. The thing is, I couldn’t find one person among the many in the entertainment industry I approached who saw what I saw. Such a theoretical vacuum is not uncommon to problems of this sort, and some parallels can be found in other instances - consumer movement, oil crisis, ghetto marketing, etc. Media tend to represent women athletes as women first and athletes second. In our opinion, the questions have become more complex, the issues are much more nuanced, and there is scope for both exciting and sustained scholarship. While my group’s research question is centered around gender representation in international television advertising, this article provides insight into the people behind the scenes who are responsible for the advertisements that broadcast on TV and includes testimonies of women who are starting out in the industry and of the scant few who have reached the executive level.
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