They share these photos in class, as a way to bring personally relevant experiences into the classroom to launch the unit. For example, a task that focused only on students’ knowledge of a particular model would be less revealing than one that probed students’ understanding of the kinds of questions and investigations that motivated the development of the model. Many such tasks would be needed to provide solid evidence that students have met the performance expectations for their grade level or grade band. You said air is everywhere, right? Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Constructing these displays engages students in the practice of analyzing data, and their displays are also a source of evidence for teachers about students’ proficiencies in reasoning about data aggregations; thus they can be used formatively. A construct map displayed in Figure 3-13 shows developing conceptions of data display. The students whose teachers used the Contingent Pedagogies Project demonstrated greater proficiency in earth science objectives than did students in classrooms in which teachers only had access to the regular curriculum materials (Penuel et al., 2012). FIGURE 4-13 Screenshot of a benchmark summative assessment of a student constructing a food web to model the flow of matter and energy in the ecosystem (without feedback and coaching); part of Example 8, “Ecosystems.”, FIGURE 4-14 Screenshot of a benchmark summative assessment of a student using simulations to build balanced ecosystem population models (without feedback and coaching); part of Example 8, “Ecosystems.”, These formative assessments also have an instructional purpose. Both are needed to develop an effective scoring system. Air particles. . In designing these materials, development teams need to include experts in science, science learning, assessment design, equity and diversity, and science teaching. and etc. Thus, the simulations also address the crosscutting concept of systems. They provide a way for students to engage in scientific practices and for teachers to instantly monitor what the students do and do not understand. The students investigate the roles of and relationships among species within habitats and the effects of these interactions on population levels (Quellmalz et al., 2009). . CONCLUSION 4-4 Assessments of three-dimensional science learning are challenging to design, implement, and properly interpret. In each of these examples, students’ writing and classroom discourse provide evidence that can be used in decisions about whether additional activities for learning might be needed, and, if so, what kinds of activities might be most productive. We combine these ideas with our analysis in Chapter 3 of current approaches to assessment design as we consider key aspects of classroom assessment that can be used as a component in assessment of the NGSS performance objectives. Students 1, 3, and 4 have made accurate predictions, and supplied reasoning and evidence; students 2, 5, and 6 demonstrate common errors, including insufficient evidence (student 2), inappropriate reasoning and evidence (student 5), and confusion between reasoning and evidence (student 6). Thus, both, teachers and assessment developers need to be aware of the typical student ideas about a topic and the various problematic alternative conceptions that students are likely to hold. The Case for Classroom Assessment. ASSESSMENT PURPOSES: FORMATIVE OR SUMMATIVE, Classroom assessments can be designed primarily to guide instruction (formative purposes) or to support decisions made beyond the classroom (summative purposes). Ms. B: Is what she’s saying making sense? After the class agrees that the consensus model should include air particles shown with arrows to demonstrate that the particles “are coming out in different directions,” the teacher draws several particles with arrows and asks what to put next into the model. To teach toward the NGSS performance expectations, teachers will need a sense of the likely progression at a more micro level, to answer such questions as: Classroom assessment probes will need to be designed to generate enough evidence about students’ understandings so that their locations on the intended pathway can be reliably determined, and it is clear what next steps (instructional activities) are needed for them to continue to progress. Measuring the three-dimensional science learning called for in the framework and the Next Generation Science Standards requires assessment tasks that examine students’ performance of scientific and engineering practices in the context of crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas. In many of these examples, listening to and engaging with other students as they discuss and defend their responses is a part of the learning process, as students work toward a classroom consensus explanation or a model based on the evidence they have collected. That is, the assessment, which is intended to be formative, is conducted through the teacher’s probing of students’ understandings through classroom discussion. If I color this whole thing in. A classroom assessment may occur in the context of group work or discussions, as long as the teacher ensures that all the students that need to be observed are in fact active participants. SOURCE: NASA/GSFC/JPL/LaRC, MISR Science Team (2013) and Los Angeles County Museum of Art (2013). Exactly what, if anything, is in between the air particles emerges as a point of contention as the students discuss their models. 18In this approach, a facet is a piece of knowledge constructed by a learner in order to solve a problem or explain an event (diSessa and Minstrell, 1998). Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. This report reviews recent and current work in science assessment to determine which aspects of the Framework's vision can be assessed with available techniques and what additional research and development will be needed to support an assessment system that fully meets that vision. These tasks, developed by researchers as part of an examination of the development of complex reasoning, are intended for use in an extended unit of study.13. Figure 4-9 shows a model of the characteristics of and changes in ecosystems as it would appear on the screen. Eliciting student thinking through skillful use of discussion is not enough, however. The premise behind using items that mimic typical large-scale tests is that they help teachers measure students’ progress toward objectives for which they and their students will be held accountable and provide a basis for deciding which students need extra help and what the teacher needs to teach again. Scientific Question: Which zone has the highest biodiversity? 10This curriculum, for middle school students, was developed by the American Geosciences Institute. Miles: How are we going to put in the particles? Such assessments provide evidence that informs teachers and students of the strengths and weaknesses of a student’s current understanding, which can guide further instruction and student learning and can also be used to evaluate students’ learning. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) are a set of specific activities that instructors can use to quickly gauge studentsâ comprehension. . Addison proposes a compromise, and Ms. B pushes for clarification. Similarly, practices were intentionally assessed in a way that minimized specific content knowledge demands—assessments were more likely to ask for definitions than for actual use of the practice. The results of classroom assessments are evaluated by the teacher or sometimes by groups of teachers in the school. Answer A: Sediment is settling there as the land becomes flatter. The map shows it will move into the Western part, therefore the climate changed. If the temperatures increase, the red-backed salamander would have to live farther north where temperatures are suitable for its survival. Such instruction will include activities that provide many opportunities for teachers to observe and record evidence of student thinking, such as when students develop and refine models; generate, discuss, and analyze data; engage in both spoken and written explanations and argumentation; and reflect on their own understanding of the core idea and the subtopic at hand (possibly in a personal science journal). The committee chose this flexible online assessment task to demonstrate how assessment can be customized to suit different purposes. We note, though, that each of these practices has multiple aspects, so multiple tasks would be needed to provide a complete picture of students’ capacity with each of them. Teachers will need extensive professional development to successfully incorporate this type of assessment into their practice. Testing Identifies Student Strengths and Weaknesses. Because learning is a process that occurs over time, a teacher might choose an assessment task with fewer guides (or scaffolds) for students as they progress through a curriculum to gather evidence of what students can demonstrate without assistance. The teacher’s focus on shape is an assessment of what is defined as the crosscutting concept of patterns in the framework and the NGSS. Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind â¢ vii Introduction With the goal of enhancing student learning, Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mindis designed to support teachers in assessing their students effectively, efficiently, and fairly, and to serve as a basis for designing professional learning. Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work. It makes little sense for students to construct data displays in the absence of a question. In this example, the students’ argument about the models plays two roles: it is an opportunity for students to defend or challenge their existing ideas, and it is an opportunity for the teacher to observe what the students are thinking and to decide that she needs to pursue the issue of what is between the particles of air. to answer questions gives teachers initial feedback on the distribution of student ideas in the classroom. The groups are asked to provide models of the air with the syringe in three positions: see Figure 4-1. CONCLUSION 4-1 Tasks designed to assess the performance expectations in the Next Generation Science Standards will need to have the following characteristics: 21Samples included students from rural and inner-city schools, from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, and English-language learners. (2012). The committee chose this example, drawn from the SimScientists project, to demonstrate the use of simulation-based modules designed to be embedded in a curriculum unit to provide both formative and summative assessment information. The teacher asks the class to discuss the different models and to try to reach consensus on how to model the behavior of air to explain their observations. The tasks may be used for both formative and summative purposes: they are designed to function close to instruction. Classroom assessment is both a teaching approach and a set of techniques. They must also elicit the interests and experiences students bring, so they can build on them throughout instruction. The first example in this chapter, “Measuring Silkworms” (also discussed in Chapter 3), illustrates how this idea works in an assessment that is embedded in a larger instructional unit. Copyright | Feedback. Students: How could that be? Although benchmark and interim assessments serve a purpose, we note that they are not the types of formative assessments that we discuss in relation to the examples presented in this chapter or that are advocated by others (see, e.g., Black and Wiliam, 2009; Heritage, 2010; Perie et al., 2007). These documents are brand new and the changes they call for are barely under way, but the new assessments will be needed as soon as states and districts begin the process of implementing the NGSS and changing their approach to science education. The inforâ¦ Currently, many schools and districts administer benchmark or interim assessments, which they treat as formative assessments. Assessment has to be thought of as a teacher tool used to drive future instruction. and gives comments that prompt the students to realize that they do not yet agree on the question of what is between the particles. 4 points: Contains all parts of explanation (correct claim, 2 pieces of evidence, reasoning), 3 points: Contains correct claim and 2 pieces of evidence but incorrect or no reasoning, 2 points: Contains correct claim + 1 piece correct evidence OR 2 pieces correct evidence and 1 piece incorrect evidence, 1 point: Contains correct claim, but no evidence or incorrect evidence and incorrect or no reasoning. Hint: Think about how biodiversity is related to abundance and richness. Classroom assessment is generally divided into three types: assessment for learning, assessment of learning and assessment as learning. Table 1-1 shows the NGSS disciplinary core ideas, practices, and crosscutting ideas that are closest to the assessment targets for all of the examples in the report.3. They are designed to promote model-based reasoning about the common organization and behaviors of all ecosystems (see Figure 4-9) and to teach students how to transfer knowledge they gain about how one ecosystem functions to examples of new ecosystems (Buckley and Quellmalz, 2013).17. Ms. B: Then ask . You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Sparks 1999, Last Updated: October 1, 2008 Ready to take your reading offline? forecasts of the impacts of climate change on organisms and ecosystems.14 This example illustrates four potential benefits of online assessment tasks: 14This performance expectation is similar to two in the NGSS ones: HS-LS2-2 and HS-ESS3-5, which cover the scientific practices of analyzing and interpreting data and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating evidence. Tasks 3 and 4, which target the same performance expectation but have different assessment purposes, illustrate this point. A structured framework for interpreting evidence of student thinking is needed to make use of the task artifacts (products), which might include data displays, written explanations, or oral arguments. It holds promise as a way to identify diversity in the classroom in science that can be used to help students productively engage in science practices (Clark-Ibañez, 2004; Tzou and Bell, 2010; Tzou et al., 2007). It may be useful to focus on individual practices, core ideas, or crosscutting concerts in the various components of an assessment task, but, together, the components need to support inferences about students’ three-dimensional science learning as described in a given performance expectation (Conclusion 2-1). They may be based on the content and skills defined in state or national standards, but they do not necessarily reflect the specific content that was covered in any particular classroom. Students need frequent opportunities to reflect on where their â¦ Write a scientific argument to support your answer for the following question. Figures 4-13 and 4-14 show tasks that are part of a benchmark assessment scenario in which students are asked to investigate ways to restore an Australian grasslands ecosystem—one that is novel to them—that has been affected by a significant fire. In field trials of IQWST, a diverse group of students responded to the task described in this example: 43% were white/Asian and 57% were non-Asian/minority; and 4% were English learners (Banilower et al., 2010). For what will they use them? 11Stream tables are models of stream flows set up in large boxes filled with sedimentary material and tilted so that water can flow through. As noted in Chapter 1, they all predate the publication of the NGSS. (2012, fig. Fourth, practitioners will be needed to ensure that the tasks and interpretive frameworks linked to them are usable in classrooms. The construct map for data display in “Measuring Silkworms” meets this requirement: a representation that articulated only the distinction between the lowest and highest levels of the construct map would be less useful. As noted in Chapter 3, they speculate about the possible reasons for the differences, which leads to a discussion and conclusions about competition for resources, which in turn leads them to consider not only individual silkworms, but the entire population of silkworms.